In the basic definition of laser cutting, we can clarify: Laser cutting is a new technology by which laser beams are used to cut metal and non-metal objects. Also, laser cutting is usually used as one of the modern methods in the range of 10 to 25 mm width for cutting metal and even non-metal parts. Nowadays Laser cutting and CNC laser cutting are used in the automotive industry to the military, construction, aerospace, medical, laboratory and even advertising industries, wood, fabric, leather and glass for cutting metal and non-metal parts.
Industry experts believe that laser cutting has always been cost-effective due to its high operating speed while maintaining quality and accuracy. On the other hand, working with lasers makes it possible for the employer to do the job in less time and provide higher quality to the customer. The use of CNC laser machines and cutting in this way in metals and non-metals depends on the order that the employer provides to the machine through the computer. Therefore, it is the employer who is involved in the work to provide the design instructions and how to perform the cut and even the depth of the cut.
Laser cutting on metals or non-metals with low thickness is always done at high speed. However, the speed was much lower at higher thicknesses.
Regarding the meaning and concept of this type of cutting, it should be said: the word CNC stands for Computer Numerical Control; Which mostly means numerical control used by the computer. In other words, in this model of technology, the computer in order to control the device and of course provide command to the device to perform various operations such as: cutting, lathe, engraving on metal and non-metal. A CNC cutting machine includes a microcomputer that acts as a control unit for the cutting machine. This technology tries to remove extra hardware circuits from the cutting machine control unit as much as possible.
How does a CNC cutting machine work?
In this technology, all the steps from the presentation to the final selection of different dimensions of parts and type of cutting and how to cut and even the depth of cutting on metal and non-metal are sent to the CNC cutting machine through a computer. Therefore, the CNC cutting machine can be more like a robot that is supposed to follow the instructions of the employer by planning and controlling.
The controller part is the main part of this device, which due to the controller structure in this technology, workers and trainees are usually taught how to work with it and how to present the program to this device. In this machine, the program is usually stored in the memory of the CNC laser cutting machine, and then the programmer either adds or edits the previous and next programs to it by presenting new codes.
For such cutting machines, various controls have been defined, such as Fanuk, Hayden Hein, Siemens, c15, 2p22, c39 and Mitsubishi Fagorovo are among these CNC laser cutting controllers. The logic for receiving information on these devices is in the form of codes beginning with the letter G. In programming such devices usually use this letter G, to write code.
Regarding the materials used in this device and this technology, we can use MDF, Plexiglas, fabric, natural and artificial leather, aluminum, brass, copper, even steel, titanium, wood, fiberglass and even plastics which are non-metallic elements.
Materials that can be used with this technology to implement a variety of designs and cuts necessary for various purposes of the industry. This device, or in other words, this technology, can remove or cut parts of the presented material that are either metal or non-metal and shape them into different forms, round or rectangular, and so on.
Laser cutting of metals by CNC laser cutting machine
In the various industries for cutting metals different methods are used such as; Laser cutting, water-jet or air cutting, and even plasma cutting but regarding the utilize of laser cutting, it should be noted that this cutting method is used for cases where the employer wants to use metals with a thickness (metals with a thickness of less than 8 mm) Or maybe the employer intends to increase the accuracy of metal cutting, so it uses this laser cutting model. Although there are more laser cutting machines on the market that can cut steel or metal up to a few centimetres, it is not cost-effective for the employer and the customer due to the high cost of purchase and the high cost of electricity consumption.
Pros of CNC laser cutting compared to traditional cutting
- In laser cutting, you do not need traditional methods (molding and pressing) and the parts will not need machining after laser cutting.
- In laser cutting, you will not see any burns on the work surface and behind your work.
- In laser cutting, since the laser beam shines focally on the surface, so metals or even non-metals in laser cutting will not have much temperature change, thus preserving the mechanical and physical properties of objects.
- The source of laser production in this technology has a very high power and speed of action.
- In this technology, complex designs are executed due to following the commands and programs that are dictated by the computer or, in other words, the same computer program that can be changed or edited and possibly replaced.
- In CNC laser cutting, there is no physical pressure on the objects being cut. Therefore, metal and non-metal surfaces reach the customer away from any crushing on the surface or even the edge.
- Other functions and advantages of CNC laser cutting include the creation of desired and possibly complex shapes in metal or non-metal parts according to the customer’s request.
- High level smoothness
- Another advantage of working with CNC laser cutting is that it makes cuts on metal or non-metal surfaces without any burns, while sometimes in ordinary cuts the edges of the surfaces or sides get burned or crushed after cutting. This will never happen in CNC laser cutting.
- In CNC laser cutting creation of very small grooves up to 1 mm deep is accessible.
Other applications for CNC laser cutting include:
Special engraving on metals and non-metals along with very precise cuts with this technology pointed out the accuracy that is mostly due to the execution of commands by programs written by the computer.